No, you can’t lose your mind. Not from anxiety. Not from anything. That’s not how the brain works.
What can happen is you stop behaving in a socially acceptable way. That’s what mental illness actually means: that most people don’t like the way you behave.
In fact, almost all behavior that gets labeled as a mental illness is understandable if you know a lot of detail about a person’s life. People respond in predictable ways to stress, and most, if not all mental illnesses are normal responses to extraordinary situations. None of them involve losing your ability to think, although, since your reactions are not what people expect, others may think you are no longer thinking the way they think.
Anxiety stimulates the human stress response. You’ve probably heard about the fight or flight response. If you add freezing to those two, you’ve got the three major strategies for dealing with complex, stress-inducing situations.
Anxiety tends to make people depressed, which is a form of freezing. People tend to isolate themselves and try to protect themselves from any involvement with others, because they can’t find ways to act effectively (or what they think is effectively) in the daily situations they find themselves in.
Anxiety is caused by stress. Stress can come from many different sources. Usually there is a component where the anxious person is constantly thinking about what they believe others expect from them. They don’t believe it is possible to match the expectations of others, and they fear that if they don’t match expectations, they will lose their right to the comfort that comes with relaxed association with others.
People will take many strategies to deal with anxiety, and most of these strategies surprise normal people. Depression is one strategy. Panic attacks are another strategy. All kinds of self-soothing strategies that generally get lumped in the category of addictions are very common responses to anxiety. Other self-soothing strategies like repetitive actions or obsessively repetitive actions are common. People often call those repetitive actions obsessive compulsive disorder or OCD.
Some people seek to establish control over their environment or other people when they are anxious. They may become domineering or violent. They may lose their compassion.
People who can’t control their environment, might try to control themselves. They might starve themselves. They might take incredible risks. They might kill themselves.
There are many other responses to anxiety, but perhaps you can begin to see why normal people might think of these responses as “losing your mind” since these are not responses most normal people think of, or if they do think of them, they usually don’t allow themselves to engage in those activities.
Of course, I have no idea what “lose your mind” means to anyone else or to the person who posted this question. Maybe you mean that a person behaves in a different way from most people. If that’s what you mean, then yes, anxiety makes you lose your mind. But behaving differently from most people includes a wide range of behavior, and calling that “losing your mind” isn’t very helpful, it seems to me.
Imagine an animal cowering in the corner of a cage. Now imagine the vast number of ways a human could act in an equivalent way, except there is no cage. In general, people will fight what they are afraid of, or run from it, or try not to be noticed. There are many ways to accomplish these goals. When normal people can’t tell that you are constantly terrified — one form of anxiety — they can’t understand your actions and they tell you you’ve lost your mind. But if they understand the stress you are under and the anxiety you feel, your behavior might make a lot more sense. In any case, the biggest problem that causes anxiety is caring about what others think of you, especially when you can do nothing about what others think.
There is no way to get inside someone else’s mind and change what they think. But usually people believe they have control over what others think. So they keep trying to change other people’s minds until they realize they have no control over anyone else. Then, they either give up trying to change other people and focus on changing themselves, or they remain anxious, and if it gets bad enough for long enough, they might decide the only way to stop the anxiety is to die. While that won’t make sense to normal people, if you’ve ever been under that kind of stress for long enough, it becomes quite easily understandable and isn’t an example of lost mind. It’s just an example of a person who has no idea what else they can do to make the pain stop.